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Here you will find papers written by healthcare professionals and students who are pursuing degrees in the medical or healthcare field. These papers are for information only and are not to be used to diagnose or treat anyone or anything. Although students do their best to provide accurate information, they do make mistakes. So please double check anything you may read. We hope these papers can at least get you started learning about a topic you may be interested in. You will also find references at the bottom of each paper that you can use to do further inquiry to a particular topic. Enjoy!!!
There are a few risk factors that might increase an individual’s risk of getting chronic kidney disease. Some of the factors are smoking, heart disease, obesity, cholesterol, family history of kidney disease, seniors, and being an African –American, Native American, or Asian- American. People that have chronic kidney disease have a higher risk of getting heart and blood vessel disease. Not many symptoms might appear or be severe until the kidney disease is chronic. But, some of the symptoms that might be noticeable are fatigue, trouble sleeping, swelling of feet and ankles, hypertension (high blood pressure), and itchiness. People that have chronic kidney disease can have many complications that could affect their body. Some of the complications might include fluid retention, rise in potassium levels which might decrease the function of your heart, heart disease, damage to central nervous system, increased risk of getting an infection, end-stage kidney disease, anemia (low blood count), and pericarditis (an inflammation of the pericardium).
Macular Degeneration results in hampered vision, and not usually in complete blindness unless other complicating factors are in play. But even so, the results of Macular Degeneration can be life shattering. Reading, writing, cooking, recognition of faces, and any close work will be difficult to the point of impossible. A person’s daily activities will have to be wholly altered to adapt to the new visual limitations. To avoid Macular Degeneration, older individuals should have routine eye exams and in addition should manage any other diseases. Smoking is harmful to the eyes, and is a known risk factor. It doubles the risk of Macular Degeneration. People should stay at a healthy weight to lessen their chances of Macular Degeneration. Further, they should exercise regularly, as we all should for many reasons. A nutritious diet featuring fruits, leafy green vegetables and fish should be adopted.
Latent TB infection is treated by medications such as isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), rifapentine (RPT). Taking medications for 6 to 9 months treats TB disease. The medications for TB disease include isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), and pyrazinamide (PZA). If the person infected with TB stops taking the medicine too soon then they can become sick again and the TB may become active. Sometimes people can become resistance to the TB drugs, which means the medications used for treating TB can no longer kill the bacteria in the person. Drug Resistant to TB can occur if people do not take the medications regularly or if they do not take all of their drugs.
The other Gram stained slide was viewed under the microscopes and pink/reddish rods were clearly visible making it the Gram negative bacteria. This Gram stain, however, did not eliminate any of the Gram Negative bacteria because they were all rods. The first test was the Simmons Citrate test. This test determines whether or not a microbe can use citrate as its sole carbon source. It was a positive result, meaning it could in fact use citrate as its only carbon source. This test narrowed down the choices from five to three bacteria (K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, and P. aeruginosa). The Urea test was then conducted. This test is used to identify bacteria capable of hydrolyzing urea using the enzyme urease. The test came back negative, which helped to eliminate K. pneumoniae, since that particular bacteria produces urease. Casein was the last test used in order to identify the Gram Negative bacteria. After incubation, there was a clearing in the milk agar, which proved that this bacteria could hydrolyze the milk protein casein using the enzyme casease. The only bacteria that was able to do that was P. aeruginosa.
Treatment of aortic stenosis depends on the severity of the condition. In cases where the patient experiences little to no symptoms, a doctor will only monitor because surgery would be riskier than the condition itself. In mild cases, or with patients who aren’t able to receive surgery, balloon valvuloplasty can temporarily relieve AS. If severe AS is found, aortic valve replacement, either mechanical or bio-prostheses (from pigs or cows) is the usual treatment.
Staphylococcus aureus is a gram positive, facultative anaerobic bacteria. It is normally found in the nose and on the skin of 25%-30% of healthy adults and 25% of people in the hospital. Usually, this bacteria is not harmful when it is outside the body; however, once the bacteria enters the body, disease and infection follows. While skin infections are most commonly caused by S. aureus, this bacteria can also cause pneumonia, food poisoning, toxic shock syndrome, and blood poisoning (“Staphylococcal”). Some symptoms and signs of a localized staph infection include pus, tenderness, pain, redness, swelling, and drainage. In specific cases, staph infections are contagious until they are resolved. Infections could be spread through personal hygiene items like razors and bandages. Certain people, such as newborns, breastfeeding women, and people with chronic conditions such as diabetes, cancer, vascular disease, lung disease, and weakened immune system, are at a greater risk of infection. Depending on the type of staph infection, there are different modes of treatment. Minor skin infections may be treated with antibiotic ointment, while other staph infections may be treated with oral, or IV antibiotics.
Only left two options Bacillus cereus or Bacillus subtilis. The first test was the Casein , which came out to be a positive result because there was clearing around the bacteria. Next was the Methyl Red test this also gave a positive result showing that it does produce a mixture of acids as a result of glucose fermentation, which turns the broth a red color. This concluded that alternate number 8 gram positive rod is Bacillus cereus because both these tests were positive. If both the test were negative then it would have been Bacillus subtilis.
Correlation between sex hormones and magnetic resonance imaging lesions is not being studied. The objective is to determine if sex hormones play a role in the pathogenesis in MS. They have put serum estradiol and progesterone in patients right before their menstrual cycle. The result shows that patients with high estradiol and low progesterone levels had a significantly greater number of lesions than those with low levels of both of these hormones. Patients with high estrogen and progesterone levels had significantly low number of lesions on their MRI. The conclusion is that estradiol and progesterone may influence disease activity in MS. If further studies confirm these results, it may be possible to develop therapy by altering levels in hormones.
Some of the signs that are associated with anaphylaxis include rashness in skin, lightheadedness, vomiting, low blood pressure, and loss of consciousness. In this severe case, calling 911 and receiving immediate medical help is important. An allergy reaction is caused when the immune system mistakenly produces an antibody for a harmless allergen. Therefore, when a person is exposed to that same allergen again, the immune system would releases substances that cause the allergy symptoms. Some common allergens include pollen, dust mites, animal dander, insect stings, medications, substances that we come in touch with, and certain foods. Also, heredity can play a role in increasing the chances of having allergies. Children are expected to have higher rates of allergies than adults.
There is not yet a cure for Alzheimer’s but there are many treatment options. Medications, alternative medications, sensory therapy and more can all be done to help someone cope with Alzheimer’s and help the symptoms decrease. A lot of treatment to help Alzheimer’s involves one-on-one interaction. Many times home nurses are brought into a home to help that person with every day simple activities; brushing their teeth, changing clothes, opening a water bottle. Alzheimer’s patients can also be moved into health facilities and assisted living where the nurses are specifically taught how to care for people of dementia.
A very common concern with melanoma patients is the re-occurrence of the cancer. The severity of your melanoma will determine what happens next. A close watch and follow up examinations are performed every three to six month for the first two to three years. Sometimes x rays may be and CT scans may be done. A patient of melanoma can also be impacted mentally. Anxiety and stress can occur from fear of the cancer re-occurrence. Precautions always have to be taken before going out into the son. Scars can also be embarrassing and make someone self-conscious.
All of the above where things that I learned about myself at the age of 17. It is a very devastating thing to happen to someone at the prime age of their youth when you are a senior in high school, and have many things to look forward too. This all occurred when I was in my prime working out at Golds Gym, and I had a syncope spell. They believed that it was simply the effects of me using a stimulant for working out (a pre workout with enough caffeine to keep a normal person up for a week!) and becoming dehydrated. The stimulant made for a lot of fun I tested positive for Meth getting questioned by the cops in the emergency room was the highlight of waking up, and not knowing where I was.
Heart disease risk factors for women include high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and obesity. Interestingly, diabetes in women increases heart disease at a much higher rate then in men. Some other factors that increase the risk of heart attacks in women with heart disease (more than in men) are smoking, fat around the midsection and higher than normal blood sugar and high triglycerides. Also depression with stress is much higher in women and a big part in damaging the heart. Lower levels of estrogen after menopause may cause a significant risk factor for micro vascular disease.
It is important to note that Down syndrome is not inherited, or at least in most cases it is not. Out of the three cases of Down syndrome, Translocation Down syndrome is the only case in which Down Syndrome may be inherited from the parent. The other two case of Down syndrome include Trisomy 21 and Mosaic Down syndrome. These two cases combined account for roughly 96% of the cases of Down syndrome, with the most common case of Down syndrome being caused by the case of Trisomy 21 (makes up 95 percent of cases of Down syndrome.)
Your systolic and diastolic numbers may not be in the same blood pressure category. In this case, the more severe category is the one you’re in. For example, if your systolic number is 160 and your diastolic number is 80, you have stage 2 HBP. If your systolic number is 120 and your diastolic number is 95, you have stage 1 HBP. If you have diabetes or chronic kidney disease, HBP is defined as 130/80 mmHg or higher. HBP numbers also differ for children and teens
The test results for the unknown Gram+ bacteria showed that the specimen was Bacillus cereus. The conclusion was made by doing two tests. The first test that was done was Methyl red, which came back positive, as the broth turned red after adding MRVP reagent. To be sure that the results were correct, the Casein test was done on a milk agar plate. After incubation there was a clearing around the bacteria, which is a positive test. With these tests, the unknown Gram+ bacteria has been identified as Bacillus cereus.
Stages of Lung Cancer:
In stage 0 the cancer has grown enough to reach the other tissues in the lungs. In stage 1 the cancer has been able to form a small tumor that is removable with surgery. In stage 2 the tumor has grown more than the first stage but it could or could not have gotten to other parts of the lung. The stage 3 of the cancer is dangerous since it is extremely difficult for the tumor to be removed. The cancer may have been able to get to the center of the chest and outside the lungs. Therefore, this makes it harder for the cancer to be treated. Stage 4 of this cancer is the worst stage of the cancer. At this stage the cancer has been able to spread to more than one part of the body. At this stage, the cancer could have traveled to places such as brain, bones and liver.
A test tube labeled “Unknown #102” was given by the Professor. The methods which have been learned thus far were applied to the unknown. All of the tests and procedures were applied using the methods outlined in the “Lab Manual for General Microbiology”.
There is no way to prevent CIDP from affecting you. If you begin to feel weakness in your limbs and/or fingers or motor function impairment and your general doctor cannot pinpoint the cause or problem, set an appointment with a neurology specialist and find out what is causing this. The faster you find out you have it, the easier and faster you can treat it and get rid of it. Speed of diagnosis is a huge factor in getting rid of CIDP, as well as age. Patients younger than 10 or older than 30 are in greater danger than those between those ages.
There are many forms of periodontitis, the most common one are the aggressive periodontitis, chronic periodontitis, periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic diseases, and the necrotizing periodontitis disease. Aggressive periodontitis occurs when destruction of the bones starts. However chronic periodontitis results in inflammation within the supporting tissues of the teeth. Which later loosen the tooth and destroys the bones. Periodontist as a manifestation of systemic diseases often beings at young age. Systemic disease such as heart disease, diabetes diseases, and respiratory diseases. Whereas necrotizing periodontitis is an infection characterized by” necrosis of gingival tissues, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone”.
There is no cure for Marfan syndrome, but close monitoring and treatments can put off complications if started early. Glasses are usually treated for eye complications. Those with skeletal problems are sometimes given a back brace for the back pain or if really severe surgery may be required to straighten the spine. Medicines like beta blockers and ACE inhibitors are used to slow the heart down and use less force so it does not rupture, but again if really severe surgery is done on the heart.
Symptoms of pernicious anemia or b12 deficiency are most commonly fatigue and weakness, abnormally rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, numbness or tingling in the hands and feet, and chest pains. Symptoms are usually mild and not life threatening. Because they are so mild pernicious anemia can sometimes go undiagnosed. Different types of anemia can result from pernicious anemia, such as megaloblastic anemia. In most cases pernicious anemia does not develop until after the age of 30 and is most common after the age of 60. In rare cases babies can be born with the inability to produce the intrinsic factor but it usually takes decades to fully develop which is why it’s seen later on in life rather than at an early age. Over time if left untreated permanent nerve and brain damage can occur.
Table 1 outlines the test, purpose, reagents or media, observations, and results in list format for unknown A, numbered 125. Table 2 also illustrates the test, purpose, reagents or media, observations, and results for unknown B, numbered 125.
The following flowcharts illustrate the path taken along with the various tests, processes, and measures used to narrow down and eliminate other potential microorganisms from previous test results, in order to conclude with the identity of Unknown A and Unknown B. The results are presented using a simple and easy to follow chart, highlighting the process of elimination technique.
Depression has been associated with adverse cardiac outcomes. A coronary heart disease and depression study that was performed from 2002 to 2004 involved 5,936 participants. After a follow up of a little over five years, the age and sex-adjusted hazard ratios for death for this cause was 4.99 compared to participants with only CHD which was 1.67 ratio, and patients with only depressive symptoms of 2.1 ratio. In comparison with non-depressed individuals, depressed patients with CHD frequently have higher levels of biomarkers found to predict cardiac events or promote atherosclerosis.
Assessing for a stroke is taught in Advanced Cardiac Life Support classes. It is part of an algorithm that is covered in all ACLS classes that CPR Tampa teaches out of their Palm Harbor, Florida location. In this video, this AHA instructor discusses the process of pre-hospital stroke assessment incorporating the Cincinnati Pre-hospital Stroke Scale.
Here is a great video demonstrating how to use an Automated External Defibrillator (AED). AED machines can be used by individuals who don’t necessarily have a medical background. It is a good idea for all stores and public places to have one on hand in case of an emergency. It is even smart for seniors to have one in their home. The correct use can save a life.
What is Atrial Fibrillation by Madison Baysinger
Treatment of atrial fibrillation varies depending on the severity of the condition and the goals of the patient. Treatment may be used to bring the heart to a normal rhythm, bring down a higher heart rate, reduce the likelihood of blood clots, or control risks for stroke. Sometimes a change as simple as reducing caffeine intake or stopping high stress activities may be enough to stop a person’s Afib. If that isn’t enough, the most common treatments for atrial fibrillation work to slow down the heart rate of the patient, although the rhythm of the heart will continue to be irregular. A person may be prescribed beta blockers, digitalis, or calcium channel blockers to achieve this. If the treatment goal is to reduce the risk of stroke or blood clots, anticoagulant medications are prescribed.
In preparation for the biopsy, the patient will undress from the waist up. The breast will be cleansed and injected with numbing medicine so that the patient will experience minimal pain and stress. The patient will then lay face down on a table with a hole that he or she will place their breast inside. The breast will hang through the hole and be compressed by two plates. These plates will keep the breast in place while the doctor makes a superficial incision, which will guide the needle. A vacuum assisted device (VAD) will proceed to insert the biopsy needle into the abnormal area until is reaches the possible cancerous growth. Several samples of tissue will be taken to a laboratory where a pathologist will determine whether or not the growth is benign or malignant.
Osteoporosis is a disease does not have a precise treatment but there are strategies used to lower the rate of bone loss and prevent the disease and other common symptoms associated with it. Calcium makes two-third of bones and is a very vital component of the body. Consuming the right proportion of calcium will increase bone density and hardness. A normal diet should contain at least 1000mg of calcium per day. Calcium supplements are also a good source of calcium for people who have low calcium absorption through food.
There are multiple different kinds of benign (non cancerous) ovarian cysts. Two of the most common include follicle cysts and corpus luteum cysts. A follicular cyst forms when a woman is on or near her menstrual cycle. The egg does not burst out of its follicle to travel down the fallopian tube and is not released, resulting in a cyst growing on the ovary. A corpus luteum cyst occurs also when a woman is on or near her menstrual cycle. This specific cyst forms when the opening for the egg to travel to the fallopian tube is closed off and fluid accumulates within the follicle, causing a cyst within the ovary. Other cysts that are usually benign but sometimes cancerous and not related to the menstrual cycle are dermoid cysts, cystadenomas, and endometriomas. These cysts develop due to growth of different types of tissues and produce a liquid substance forming the cyst inside or on the ovary.